Authorial Techniques – Lower Key Stage 2

During guided reading, shared reading, class readers and independent reading children are taught and explore authorial techniques.


Lower Key Stage 2

Technique Definition Example
Evoking The author creates atmosphere by ‘showing’ and not over explaining

Mary struggled to her feet. Despite the pain in her knees she would not accept help. (Creates the feeling that this person is brave and resilient)


Maria could hear the door opening slowly. Footsteps on the stairs worried her even more. (Creates the feeling that something was coming.

Foreshadowing Giving the reader a clue about something which might happen later on, or a character having a premonition (feeling about the future).

I knew it would be a bad day when the alarm didn’t go off and there was no milk for my cereal.


As soon as I put my foot to the floor and felt the dead mouse I knew it would be a bad day.


Graphology using how a word is written to show it’s meaning

Jim walked closer, CLOser, CLOSER.




As we approached, the giant got bigger and bigGER and BIGGER.


Metaphor Saying an object or person is something else, without the use of the word ‘like’ or ‘as’.

The man was a mighty lion.


The man was a vulture. He preyed on the misfortunes of others.


The sea was a hungry dog.


Sauce-pan eyes glared at him.

Similes Comparing two things usually by saying an object or person is ‘like’ or ‘as’ something else.

As quietly as a mouse, the man crept towards an open door.


He felt a fierce pain like the stab of a dagger.

Alliteration Using the same letter or sound at the beginning of closely connected words.

The beautiful blue bird burst out in song.


Wide eyed and waiting while wondering about Walter.


Ellipses Can be used to indicate trailing off thought or hesitation

If only she had… oh it doesn’t matter now.


It can’t be…no…


‘Wait!’ he shouted. The shape turned and that’s when he saw…


I wasn’t really…well, what I mean is …


Short Sentences

Silence!  Nothing stirred.


Finally, he found it.


He was alone. With nothing.


Deafening silence


Tension A series of short sentences which give the reader bits of information, but not too much, leading the reader to question what is going to happen.

The boy stopped.  He looked around.  What was that?  Was it… Yes!  There it was! Run he thought.




Sentence variety A mixture of short impact, compound and complex sentences to keep your writing interesting.

Terrified! He scrambled up the cliffs, leaping from rock to rock, glancing fearfully behind him until the waves of noise crashed into him. He began to panic. Must get out. Must escape.


Jemison’s accomplishments did not end there.  In 1981, she joined NASA’s space program in Houston, Texas, however it was in 1988 when Jemison realised her biggest dream – becoming an astronaut!


Opening variety Sentences starting in different and varied ways.

Although the team were usually victorious, today they suffered a humiliating defeat. (Starting with a connective).


Sat proudly on top of the mouth-watering trifle was the freshly picked cherry (Starting with where or when).

Repetition Repeating something which is important, particularly used in 3’s (the power of 3).

Boy did it rain. It rained and rained and rained.


See me here! See me there!


The glistening snow was deeper than last year, deeper than any his family could remember, deeper than the snows of the last hundred years.


From roof to roof, balcony to balcony, wall to wall he leapt.

Senses Using the senses to add more to the description.

The air smelt of wood smoke and my ears were filled with the sound of squawking birds circling above.


Wafts of salt-laden air were in her nostrils as the skittering sand on her feet led her to the edge of the cool, calming waves.